Thomistic Philosophy
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Thomistic Metaphysics
Being

BEING : THAT WHICH CAN EXIST   Click to Expand ⤵

  1. Real Being (a.k.a. Reality)
    That which exists or can exist outside the mind   ⤵
    1. Actual Being (a.k.a. Actuality or Physical Being)
      That which does exist outside the mind
      (e.g. dog, human, the earth)
    2. Possible Being (a.k.a. Possibility or Metaphysical Being)
      That which can exist outside the mind (and may or may not actually exist)
      Note: Purely Possible Being is Possible Being that necessarily is not Actual Being
      (e.g. dog, human, the earth, unicorn)

  2. Mental Being (a.k.a. Virtual Being)
    That which exists in the mind   ⤵
    1. Ideal Being
      That which exists in the mind and can also exist in reality
      (e.g. dog, human, the earth, unicorn)   ⤵
      1. Subjective Being (a.k.a. Sensory Image or Phantasm)
        That which exists in the mind as a mental image of a real being
      2. Objective Being (a.k.a. Real Conceptual Being or Understanding)
        That which exists in the mind as an abstract form of a real being

    2. Purely Mental Being (a.k.a. Purely Conceptual Being or Being of Reason or Logical Being)
      That which exists in the mind but cannot exist in reality   ⤵
      1. Negative Being (a.k.a. Negation)
        That which represents the absence of a being
        (e.g. blindness, an absence of chairs, nothingness)   ⤵
        1. Privative Being (a.k.a. Privation or Deprivation)
          That which represents the absence of a being in a thing which ought to have such a being according to the thing's nature
          (e.g. the lack of wings on a bird)
        2. Purely Negative Being (a.k.a. Pure Negation)
          That which represents the absence of a being in a thing which does not require such a being according to the thing's nature
          (e.g. the lacks of wings on a pig)

      2. Purely Mental Relation (a.k.a. Purely Conceptual Relation or Relation of Reason or Logical Relation)
        That which represents a relation between concepts
        (e.g. the conventional connection between words and their meanings)
      3. Self-Contradictory Being (a.k.a. Paradoxical Quiddity or Non-Thing)
        That which refers to two concepts connected by a purely mental relation which cannot be unified into a single concept, due to the logical incompatibility of the two concepts (such a being is said to have no foundation in reality)
        (e.g. square circle)